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Full text of "Annual Reports of the Superintendents of the Yellowstone National Park, 1927"

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The annual report for Yellowstone National Park 
for the first time since the creation of the Park in 
1872 is not to he printed for 1927. As there are a 
number of collectors who have the Yellowstone reports 
since the first issue and as a number of others are 
interested in having copies of the reports for refer- 
ence purposes, it has been deemed advisable to mimeo- 
graph the 1927 report and one hundred copies have been 
made up. 

The illustrations in this report are the work of 
Edmund J. Sawyer, Park Naturalist, Yellowstone National 






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Tufa* k 

Horace Iff. Albright 
Sup e r in t e nd en t 
Yellowstone National Park 





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Administrative Department. 6 

Automobile Camps 10 

Animals 13 


Birds (migratory) 17 

Bridges 7 


Buffalo Ranch 12 

Camps, automobile 10 

Camps , permanent 23 

Cases tried "before U. S. Commissioner 26 

Cooperation with other Government organizations: 
Department of A griculture : 

Weather Bureau 27 

Bureau of Itlntomolcgy 27 

Department of Com me rce : 

Bureau of Fisheries 27 

D epartment o f the Interior: 

Inspection Service 27 

Geological Survey 27 

Department of Just ice; 

Commissioner's Court 26 

Post Office Departmen t 26 

Treasu ry Department : 

Public Health Serv ice 27 

Cultivation of land: 

Kay Operations 13 

Distinguished Visitors 

Donations 29 

Dust Prevention 

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Electrical Department 21 

Elk Con.ission 28 

Extens i on 29 

Engineering Department 6 

Fish Planting 12 

Forest Fires 11 

Franchises and Permits 26 

Geysers, Hot Springs and Other Similar Phe- 
nomena 17 

Guide Service 21 

Hay and Hay Ranches 13 

Hospital and Medical Service 27 

Improvements by park utilities 2? 

Information Department 20 

Insects. 17 

Landscaping Engineering Activities 7 

Legislation 29 

Lecture Service 20 

Mechanical Department 22 

Medical Service 27 

Mosquito Control 10 

Natural Features of the Park 13 

Opening of Park 1 

Opening of Roads 7 

Pres ident ' s Vis i t 30 

Painting Department 23 

Permanent Camps 23 

Permits 26 

Post Office Department 26 

Power Plant 21 

Predatory Animals 13 

Property and Transportation Department 

Protection Department 11 

Public Utilities 23 

Pioneers , Death of 2fl 

Revenues 6 

Road Maintenance 7 

Road Improvement 

Roadside Cleanup 9 

Sanitation 10 

Snow Removal 7 


Telephone Lines 21 

Trails 11 

Transportation Company 25 

Travel of 1927 Season 4 

Trees 17 

Violations cf Laws 26 

Weather 3 

V.'ild Animals: 

Antelope 14 

Bears » 16 

Beaver 16 


Lamar River Herd 13 

Cold Creek-Pelican Flats Herd 14 

Coyotes. » . . . . i 13 

Deer 15 

21k 15 

Moose 14 

Mountain Sheegi 14 

Small Animals. »..»». » 16 






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Horace ].. Albright, Sup er intend en t 

During the spring of 1927 unusual weather conditions prevailed and 
much difficulty was experienced in clearing the roads of snow. This 
condition adversely affec^-d travel during the early part of the season 
but when the park closed our records indicated an increase of 13,018 
visitors over last year, or an increase of 6.9 percent. 

The formal opening of the park took place at the Cody entrance on 
June 19th. The guests of honor and principal speakers were Hon. John 
Q. Tilson, Floor Leader of the U. S. House of Representatives, Congress- 
man Charles E. Winter of Wyoming, Governor Frank C. Emerson of Wyoming 
and two Indians, >/hite-Man-Runs-Him, last of General Custer's Crow 
Scouts, and I.lax Big Man, interpreter for the old scout. Arrangements 
for the opening were made by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, 
the Cody Club, the Cody Lions' Club, and the National Park Service. 
The Forest Service cooperated also. A large crowd attended the open- 
ing ceremonies. 

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On June 17th there were celebrations commemorat , of 

the 3ozeman and Gallatin Gateway entrance to the par] , On the nor:., 
of the 17th northern Pacific officials, State officers and others : 
ticipated in a celebration in Bozeman featuring the beginning of Nci 
em Pacific service to Bozeman, luring the afternoon and evening, the 

facilities of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul System at Galla 
Gateway were thrown open for inspection with appropriate s. 
Many high officers of the ?.filwaukee System were ther . 


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The heavy snows of 

* ~\J 'i'Z/fff' *^ e Park was unusually beautiful this year. 
\{\Jfa* *" e w i n * er an( l late spring storms saturated the ground with moisture 
' Lxv and grasses and flowers grew in great profusion everywhere. Tourists 

-^y^v/ere fortunate in seeing moose and other wild animals close to the roads 
)r Fishing was good and gave pleasure to thousands of people. 

During the summer the roads of the Grand Loop were oiled from time 
to time instead of being sprinkled as in the past, and many favorable 
comments were made by tourists. This oiling was more or less in the 
nature of an experiment but there is no doubt but what it lias been a 
great success as a dust palliative. 

Service furnished by the park operators and by the Government or- 
ganization was superior to that rendered in previous years. Very i 
complaints were received. 

Our educational work proceeded in a satisfactory manner and thou- 
sands of people made use of the Information Office and I.useum at head- 
quarters. Many visitors also traveled over the nature trails and 
horseback trails. 



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A great many prominent persons were among the visitors uuring 
the year. These included Hon. Calvin Coolidgc, President of the 
United States, Mrs. Coolidgc .md their son John; Honorable Everett 
Sanders, Secretary to the President, and Mrs. Sanders; Seer tary of the 
Interior, Dr. Hubert Work; S- >r< tary of Commerce Herbert Hoov 
Governor Frank C. Emerson of Wyoming; Governor J. S. Fisher of Peru. 
vania; Assistant Secretary of the Interior, John H. Edwards; U. S. 
Senators Reed Smoot of Utah, T. L. Oddie of I . L. 

Jones of Washington; U. S. Representatives Scott Loavitt of Montana; 
Frederick . ;rady of Pennsyli . ; T. J. B. Robinson of Ioi ; 
Frederick W. Dal linger of Massachusetts; Ch.rl . ., 'inter of Wyoming; 

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William C. Lankford of Georgia; Carl R. Chindblom of Illinois, and 
John Q. Tilson, Floor Leader of the House of Representatives; Mr. 
H. E. By ram, Receiver of the C. Iff, & St. Paul Ry.; President Carl R. 
Gray of the Union Pacific System; President Agncw T. Dice of the 
Reading Railroad Company; Rear Admiral Wilson, U. S. N., Retired; 
Major General Mason M. Patrick, Chief of the Air Service, U.S.A.; 
IfcDel Walker Willcbrondt, U. S. Assistant Attorney General; Wyoming 
Pr^ss Association; Hon. Louis Franck, Governor of the Bank of Belgium 
and Mini s t re d'Etat; a foreign ambassador, and many prominent business 
and scientific men. 


Following an unseasonably cold and stormy September, the weather 
during October, November and the early part of December was generally 
mild and pleasant for the season. A cold wave of unusual intensity 
prevailed from December 12 to 15, it being the first real wintry weather 
that had been experienced for a period of nearly two years, or since 
the record-breaking cold wave of December 17 T S7, 1924. However, the 
snowfall for this storm, as well as for the nonth of December, was ex- 
tremely light. January was marked by quite pronounced temperature ex- 
tremes. The first decade was exceptionally mild, while at the end of 
the second decade a severe cold wave occurred, resulting in the lowest 
temperatures for the winter, and ranging from 28° below zero at Mammoth 
on the 21st to 49° below at the Buffalo -Ranch on the same date. The 
persistence of strong northerly winds with temperatures well below zero 
greatly intensified this storm, which was zho most severe and blizzard- 
like that had occurred for over two years. 

No adveroc winter conditions were recorded during Febr rch, 

Bonablo temperatures prevailing generally,. The unseasonably cold, 
wet, stormy April ar.d May resulted in one of the most t rd springs 
of record. June was also marked by the continu.tion of the cool, 

, iry weather that had characterized the spring months. The 
snowfall for the winter was considerably above normal in all the higher 
regions of the park. The only region of deficient snowfall was in the 
extreme lover Gardiner River b .sin, from Mammoth northward. At the end 
of ;Lay exceptionally heavy depths of snow for so lat. in the season n - 
nainod at th her elevations. The onov line then appeared to v. 

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between the 7,200 and 7,400 foot levels, increasing to about 4 to 6 feet 
at an elevation of 8,000 feet, jid to about 8 to 10 feet at the 8,500 
foot elevation. This unusual situation is chiefly accounted for by the 
fact that the winter's snowfall was much heavier than normal over the 

er regions, together with the persistence of unseasonably cold, 
stormy weather during the late spring, thus retarding the normal sprin 
melting; also to the fact that the deficiency in sunshine for May \ 
without a precedent. A reaction to seasonable weather did not occur 
until after the first week in July. However, the warmer weather was 
of short duration as August was exceptionally cool with frequent show- 
ers and thunderstorms. 


Park Visitors this year totaled 200,825, as compared with 187,807 
last year, an increase of 13,018. The rail travel figures were 41,685 
as compared with 40,960 last year, showing an increase of 725. There 
was an increase of 1,265 rail visitors at the west entrance; the north 
entrance shows a decrease of 355 and the east entrance a decrease of 
23, as compared with the preceding season, 109 rail visitors entered 
via the Lander or southern gateway, as compared with 271 last year. 

The automobile travel records for preceding seasons have been ex- 
ceeded at the north, west and east gateways this year. A total of 
54,953 auto visitors entered at the east gate, 60,375 at the west, 
28,770 at the north and 11,481 at the south; grand total all gateways 
155,579, exclusive of motorcycle and preseason auto visitors. 

The number of cars and visitors reported at the various developed 
public auto camp grounds during the season are indicated as follows: 
moth 26,408 cars and 85,770 campers; Old Faithful 37,211 cars and 
119,447 campers; Lake 29,581 cars and 94,555 campers; Canyon 24,755 
cars and 79,464 campers; Norris 2,129 cars and 6,834 campers; Ifodison 
Junction 3,840 cars and 12,326 campers; Thumb 4,794 cars and 15,389 
campers; Tower Balls 3,204 cars and 10,285 campers. In addition, 
approximately 13,000 campers used the many camping placed .long the 
re as . 

The west entrance continues to lead in rail travel and it was 
also the favorite ,y for motorists this ye .r. 

There v. b an increase of 12,837 auto visitors over the record 
tot. 1 of last y r. 





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: Horseback 

• Visitors 

: Pre- 
• Se..3on 
: Visitors 


C;.rs Visitors 

: Cars Visitors 



: 13,772 

: 9,485 

• 28,770 

: 41 

52 : 


• 1,330 j 






1 50 


122 : 


• 81,112 




• 54,953 

: 95 i 

122 s 






• 3,684 

: 11,481 

: 13 

: 20 


: 64 : 



41,685 i 




: 263 : 


1,724 i 


19 2 6 




; !ars Visitors 


• Walking 
r Horseback 
: etc. 
: Visitors 

: Pre- 
: Season 


: Oars Visitors 



■ 14,127 

: 9,288 

: 27,424 


: 38 



: 43,820 






: 68 

164 : 









326 : 





• 4,349 

13,830 • 


22 : 

1,257 ; 

38 i 





141,449 s 

146 : 

194 : 

2,118 : 

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•Includes 2,890 r.nd 9,692 visitors who entered the p:.rk more than 
once luring the season and 2,354 and 7,668 visitors entering more t) 
once in 1926. By Automobile also includes 620 cars, pre-season, unclass- 
ified, in 1927 and 1,052 can , re-se:.son unclassified, in 1926, 

#The rail visitors accredited to the west' beway during the tourist 
season of 1927 consist of 17,157 via the Union Pacific I y; 2,788 via the 
Gallatin Gateway of the Milwaukee terminal and 271 via the Bozenu-n termin 
of the Northern Pacific, who also entered the park via the Gallatin Rout. . 
B13 rail visitors entered via the Milwaukee Lnal at rks, 
in 1326. 

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He-dgui.rters Offic e:- During the fiscal ye.-r from five to eight 
clerks v/ere employed in the headquarters office on general correspondence, 
files, personnel, purchasing, tine keeping,, miscellaneous financial 
matters, information, and a wide r.vnge of other duties relating to this 
and to other parks. This office continued to be the headquarters of 
the Assistant Director (Field) who is also the Superintendent of the 
Yellowstone. On March 1, 1927 Mr. Joseph Joffe was promoted to the 
position of Assistant to the Superintendent, vice E. A. Eckm . 

A ppropriations :- Appropriations made available since the date of 
the last report are as follows: 





Insect control 

"Administration, protection and maintenanc . . 

Construction, sewers and camp grounds 

Road and trail construction 

Roads and trail surveys 

$ ^.500 



T T A L : $ 811,900 

* ;?8,000 reserred for Washington Office expenditures and >„4-,000 as a 
budget reserve. 

Of the 1927 fiscal year insect control funds, $1,000 was transferred 
to Crater L .ke National Park; #16,774 was temporarily transferred to Gla- 
cier National Park to help defray the expenses of fighting forest fires. 
Funds allotted for Road and Trail surveys have been turned over to the 
Bureau of Public Roads for expenditure. 

Revenues for 1927 ;- Funds collected during the fiscal year 1927 
and deposited to the credit of Miscellaneous Receipts in the United 
States Treasury were as follows: 

Franchise and permit fees 98,971.24 

Automobile and motorcycle permit fees 

"trie Current 

Water rent 






T T A L $ 230, . '. 

engin ..;•::■; depart:; 

This department is in rge of Resident Engine Till F. Iv , 
aided by assistant Resident Engineer Cecil A. Lord. 

Road I.iaintenance ;- The park road system consists of 1502 miles of 
road designated as follows: Grand Loop 140.7 miles, approach and conn' st- 
ing roads 79.1 miles, secondary and roads to points of interest 81.5 
miles. During the 1927 season 302 miles of park road, 28 miles of road 
in the Shoshone National Forest and 30 miles of road in the Teton Forest 
were maintained by nineteen crews, made up of 110 men and 30 teams, with 
8 small gravel trucks, end 7 1-man power graders as equipment instead of 
horses and dump wagons and horse-drawn graders. This year a new method 
of road maintenance was attempted with great success. The motorizing 
of the equipment made it possible to keep the road much smoother and in 
much better shape. The use of heavier graders and tractors for early 
spring maintenance has contributed to this condition as well. This year 
we have added 7 one-man power graders, Fordson power, 6 one yard dump 
trucks, and one 75 Holt tractor to our maintenance equipment. 



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Dust Prev e ntio n:- Another innovation in our maintenance work was 
the substitution of a li^ht road oil as a dust lay~r instead of water, 
a much more efficient method ..1 though more costly. 126 miles of the 
main loop and entrance roads were oiled with from l/9 to l/2 O allons per 
square yard. The old wooden tank tricks were used to haul the oil from 
tank cars to the distributor andsome 20 of the wooden storage tanks v.\ r 
set up and used to store the oil. ter sprinkling system is being 

dismantled as rapidly as possible, as the tanks were an eyesore along 
the road. Four of the steel ammunition bodies thct cane with the trucks 
from War surplus were covered ..ith steel pl„tes and >.\,lded and mounted on 
tracks and used to haul oil. Nine tank trucks and on. distributor track 

us^d during June, July ; jid p^rt of August in transporting <~nd spread- 
ing approximately 300,000 gallons of road oil. 

Snow Removal :- Due to the heaviest sno.foJl in y^ars, mor 
15 tons of oxplosivcs were used in clearing snow from Sylvan and Dunravon 
Passes, the Mt. '..'ashburn loop and the south entrance ro-d. Sylv.^n ..nd 
Dun. :'^5scs wor^. open to traffic June 19th and the . I . ...shburn loop 

and the couth entrance ro^d3 were open to traffic on July 1st. 

Bridge ] laint^ nance : - The seven span log bridge across * 
Riv^r :jid two other a . .11 bridges on tho south entrance roe.d >■ r r - 
built this your after the snow lo..d h^d broken them do . The Yellow- 
stone River bridge nucr Tower Junction was rodecked ^Jid several oth r 
bridges have been rcpairod tempor rily until they d_n I r ! -d. 

Ro-d Impr ovem e nt;- The road improvement projects under our three- 
year building program which were unfinished last year have been completed 
or are nearing completion and in addition we have started construction of 
roads under the new five year program. The road projects which have been 
completed during the past year or are nearing completion are; 

Project No . 1-C, Firehole Cut-Of f;- Two miles of construction 
through the Firehole Canyon, one of the scenic attractions of the park. 
This road will be completed this season. 

Project No. 5-C, C ub Creek Section of the East Sntrance Road :- 
Six miles of reconstruction. " The clearing and roadside cleanup of this 
road was started last fall by park forces. On July 12th the Bureau of 
Public Roads let a contract for the building of this section of road and 
the contractor started work in August. The project will not be com- 
pleted this year. 

Project No. 6-A, We st Gal l atin Road :- Reconstruction of eight 
miles of the ro^d from the" Gallatin" ranger station south. The Bureau 
of Public Roads let a contract for this work August 9th and the con- 
tractor has started work. The project will not be completed this year. 

Project No. 9-A, Inspiration Point Roa d;- This job was surfaced 
this year and is completed. 

Project No. 1-G, C anyon Ju nction- Tower Junction : - New cons true t i on 
of 8,000 feet of road from G/and View on the Inspiration Point road to 
near the two-mile post on the old road to Dunraven Pass to eliminate bad 
grades, curvature, and the unsightly conditions along the old road nc r 
the Canyon Hotel. This work is being done by park forces and will be 
completed this year. 

Project No. 1-A, llammo th-Norris Junction;- Reconstruction of the 
worst features of the present road. This work is being started this 

Project N o. Z, .Madison Juncti on-West Yel lowstone ;- Reconstruction 
of the worst features of the old roodL • ork is being started this 

Process ing:- This work consists of using the Cdifornia method of 
oiling our sand and gravel roads and producing a three inch mat pa\ 
similar in appearance to penetration macadam but costing only a fo\. 
as much. This work is in the experimental stages and consists of the 
ing of about two miles of this type of pavement. 

Buildir. .; : - Two mess houses and bunk houses have been construct 
for road camp crews at Thumb and Canyon. Two 3 tables have been built 
at Old Faithful and Tower Junction. The front row of reuidencer 
headquarters have been painted and the color changed from white to . , 
a color that is much more pleasing to the c. . Four new snowshoe cal : 
have been erected. These buildings are one-room log structures of 

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uniform design; they are attractive in appearance, securely and stoutly 

built and splendidly adapted to the uses intended. Ley are located at 
ss, Crystal Spring, .. and Shoshone Lake. 8 Crystal 

Sprin c bin is 16 x 18 feet; the others are 12 x 14 fe . A new hay 
i horse barn Las been built at the Buffalo ianch, dimensions ?0 x 50 
■t, and two stories high, and a new horse shed and corral has 'oeen 

erected at the Yancey Ranch. The shed is 160 feet long and 14 feet 
Let The entire inclosure including the corral, which is 7 feet high, 

covers an area of 15 x 125 feet; the frame work of the shod is made of 

logs and is also log trimmed. 

DSCAPE :.: :ctk^el 

The landscape and planning problems of Yellowstone Park were thor- 
.ly covered in the autumn of 1926 by Landscape Engineer T. C. Vint, 
and during the current summer by Mr. Vint and Assistant Landscape Engine r 
E. .-l. Davidson. Mr. Davidson supervised important planting at head- 
quarters in the Mammoth auto camp and at the Gardiner transportation 
plant* . Vint approved plans for many company buildings and selected 
sites for them. He also planned several Government buildings and 
located them. He devoted considerable time to vista marking on the Lake 
Shore Road. Both landscape men worked on maps of cjnp grounds, and the 
Civil .Engineering Division made a topographic map of the Canyon Auto 
Camp. Roadside cleanup was continued with funds contributed by the 
eastern friend of the park who inaugurated this splendid project in 1924. 
From ifest Thumb northward thr^e and one-half miles of the roadsides were 
clejjicd and one mile north of Lake Junction was similarly treated. 
Another section cleaned under this program was south of Cvnyon Hotel 
Junction 2r\ mil~s tov. ard the Lake. The remaining section of two 
miles between Llammoth and Iforris Junction was completed except for burn- 
ing. Roadside cleanup with road construction funds included the In- 
spi.ation Point Road, 2-1/2 miles of the Lake Shore Road, and as much 
of the Firchole Cut-Off as was completed. There were also two mil 
of ro-d on the Cub Creek section of th t rn entrance road cleared and 
roadsides cleaned. Our planting, vista cutting .Jid roadside cleanup 
work has greatly improved the park lands c • • .nd is noticed by everybody. 

Much landscape work • s c omplishod by the par) o ...tors in addi- 
tion to the pi nting around bhc transportation buildings at G r. 
This included the wreck in o; .he old Fountain Hotol and Iforris lunch 
st tion, th.. salv ging of usable lumber >.nd cleaning up of the sites. 

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This department, in charge of the master plumber, cooperated cli 
ly v ith the engineering department in 2on?truction work. 

Public Auto Campground Development:- Mammoth. - Built 48 


tables, painted inside of sho< . r .nd laundry and stained roofs of com- 
fort stations. Protected and planted trees. 

Tower Fall s - 3uilt 20 tables, 4 earth toilets and protected 
trees. Installed 100 fee-t 4-inch, 1,000 feet 3-inch, 4,000 feet ! 
inch and 50 feet 3/4 insh jalvanized iron water pipe. Constructed con- 
crete dam 20 feet long with 10-foot wing Wc~lls across Antelope Cre-uk. 

Canyon - Built 200 tables and 2 comfort stations, including 
16 flush toilets, 2 urinals and 4 lavatories. Constructed 24-foot log 
bridge connecting two camps. La,id 1,200 feet of 6- inch sewe-r cuad 1,000 
feet 2-inch galvanized iron water pipe. Rebuilt sludge bed for sewerage 
disposal plant. Built new chlorine house, size 6 x 10 feet and laid a 
new concrete floor in old comfort station which was dama,ged by frost. 

Old Faithful - Built 40 tables and extended driveways. Ex- 
cavated for and laid 650 feet of 6" tile sewer, 1,800 feet 2^ inch, 
2,000 feet two-inch and 300 feet 3/4 inch galvanized iron water pipe. 
Built two comfort stations, including 16 flush toilets, 4 lavatories, 
2 urinals. 

Mammot h V/a ter and S ewer S ys tem :- Constructed two new manholes 
in water sewer "system. Built new "concrete wall 80 feet x 10 feet 8 
inches at reservoir which supplier I.L.mmoth with potable water. 

2. r.osq uito Con trol:- The mosquitoes were numerous throughout 
the entire park due to exceptional moisture. Extensive ditching and 
oiling was done at Mammoth, Tower Falls, Ccjiyon, Lak< , ~t Thumb and 
Old Faithful. 

3. Garbage and Refuse Disp osal :-- Constructed incinerator ,.t Old 
Lthful for burning the garbage" "from the Hotel, Lodge and auto camp. 

Dump grounds cleaned up. Garbage not eaten by bears, and paper, 
trash ..nd wood burned. 

4. Miscellaneous t- Operated 6 septic tanks with chlorinators ..nd 
:thout. Supervised the operation of 2 swimming pools. Built 16 
earth toilets and made new v/ater supply investigations for the Canyon 
and West Yellowstone. 


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The permanent personnel of this department consists of the Chief Park 
Hanger, Sam T. V/oodring, 4 Assistants Chief Hanger and 26 park rangers, 
a total of 31. There were two vacancies in the permanent personnel at 
the opening of the 1927 tourist season which were filled by temporary 
appointments. Fifty-four temporary rangers entered on duty for summer 
season service on June 16th. There was a total of 90 rangers in service 
during the tourist season. 

Winter Activiti es:- The fall, winter and spring season activities 
have consisted principally of regular and special patrols for the obser- 
vation and protection of wild life and the natural features of the park, 
the capture and shipment of buffalo and elk, predatory animal hunting, 
repairs and maintenance to telephone lines, buildings and equipment, 
trail maintenance and repair, observing and reporting weather conditions 
and water ga&e heights in cooperation with the Wearer Bureau and the 
'. ater Resources Branch of the U. S. Geological Survey. Other activities 
have consisted cf wild animal feeding at the various hay ranches and the 
care and feeding of the Park Service and ranger horses at their winter 
feed grounds. 


Summer Season Activities :- The principal activities during the 
tourist season have consisted of the following: Checking entrance and 
exit travel, traffic regulation and control, information and communica- 
tion service, guide and lecture service, report compilation, forest pa- 
trols, trail construction, maintenance and repair, snowshoe cabin con- 
struction, informing and assisting the traveling public and safeguarding 
the wild life and natural features of the park. 

forest Fires :- There has been no serious fire hazard at any time 
during the ye^r and only seven small fires occurred. The damage was 
negligible in each instance. These fires were promptly observed and 
quickly extinguished by members of the ranger service; there was no loss 
of property or expense involved. 

Trail Construction , ?.iaint enance ^nd Improv ement ;- New trail con- 
ation during the past ye ir h b consist*': the following le9 
in the vicinity of ;.:ar_"..oth Hot Springs and 1 mile in the vicinity of 
Tower Falls. These extensions of the tra L system arc kne • des- 
ignated as nature trails. Ten miles of new trail was also construct- 
ed along Clear Creek, extending from the Sylvan Pass road at Syl 

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Lake to the Upper Yellowstone trail along the east shore of Yellowstone 
Lake. The total trail mileage, exclusive of game trails used by rangers 
on patrol, is approximately 886 miles. The entire trail system has been 
cleared of down timber and repaired. 

Fish Planting:- Fish planting activities during the year with com- 
parative figures for 192b and 1926 are reported as follows: 

: 1925 



Total collection of black spot-: 
ted trout eggs from park : 

• 17,000,000 
; 5,891,000 

: 8,494,000 \ 

: 13,313,000 

Numcer of eggs collected in : 
park, hatched a/id returned to: 
park waters or planted as : 
e^et] e-Stfa..., : 4.336.76C 

: 5,113,000 

Total fish shipped to outside : 

Total eggs shipped to outside : 

5,?P. , '.?r 

• 14,385,000 ; 


Total number of fish planted : : 

5,891,000 : 

31ack spotted trout collected : 

in r>ark : 4.336,760 ; 


Brook trout received from ■ : 

Rainbow trout received from : : 
Bozenan, Mont, hatchery : 





5,891,000 : 

1 . , 000 

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"H OPIL . 

The actj vitie^ a*, the buffalo r nc . e y r have consisted 
in part c 'the herd, the erection of a . y and 

X 50 feet, and 2 stories high, ties 

•s and maintenance of buildings, corrals, fences, 
rfc. • |Uipment and harvesting of the 1927 1 ; >rop, 

which is estimated at 577 tons. 

Thirteen buffalo were captured and crated for shipment during the 
year, consisting of 5 cows, 2 bulls and 6 salvos. Fourteen steers 
were slaughtered and sold for food purposes and 8, consisting of 4 males 
and 4 females, were destroyed because of advanced age or other Infir- 
mities. 635.77 tons of hay were fed at this ::oint during the year, 
leaving a balance of approximately 150 tons i liich, together with the 
1927 crop, makes a total of 727 tons now on hand for use during the 
approaching winter season. 


'ild animal and horse feeding at the Slough Creek, Yancey and 
C-ardiner Ranches during the year accounted for 359.66 tons of hay. 

re v/as comparatively little wild animal feeding at these points. 
The balance on hand of the 1926 hay crop is 389.74 tons. The approx- 
imate yield this year at the above named ranches is 449 tons. Other 
activities have consisted of maintenance and repairs to buildings and 
equipment and the erection of a new horse shed and corral at the 
Yancey Ranch. The shed is 160 feet long and 14 feet wide. The en- 
tire inclosure, including the corral which is 7 feet high, covers an 
area of 150 x 125 feet. The frame work of the shed is made of logs; 
it is also log trimmed. 


Two hundred and thirty-eight coyotes were destroyed during the 
year, as compared with 243 last year, and 180 during the year next pre- 

/*# 'USt'l "fe 


Observations of w' Lfe, geysers and hot springs activities, 
"forests and plant life have been made by the p turalist and by 
t hroughout the year and are reported briefly as folio. ■ 

jnal Conditions:- wild animal and forage conditions 
"been _ood. 

Baffalc - Lamar v or Herd;- The herd total on : . Lst, elu- 
sive of ". ' r ■' ' crop, was 815, consisting of 228 bulls, 176 
Bteers id 411 females, ■ , ther wi1 7 call , son- 

g of 121, makes a grc.nd total of 936 buffalo in the Lai . 
lerd bhis tine. reduction of 41 in the herd tc 


.. ...._. 


during the year, consisting of a loss of 6 from natural causes, were 
killed because of advanced age or other infirmities, 12 steers v. 
slaughtered and sold for market purposes and 15 were crated and shipped 
to public parks, zoos and private estates for exhibit and stocking pur- 
poses. The animals shipped consisted of 2 bulls, o cows, 2 male ye r- 
lings, 2 female yearlings, 2 male calves, and 4 female calves. 

3uffal o - Cold Creek-Pel ican C reek Herd :- The largest count of 
this herd secured in recent years was submitted in December, 1926. The 
total of this count was 72, which shows an increase by actual count of 
7 over the count submitted last year. The herd total is estimated at 

Mountai n Sheep :- Actual counts submitted during the winter and 
spring seasons total 346 as compared with 217 last year and 125 during 
the year next preceding. The estimated tot: t within the park is 650. 
The reported losses during the year totaled 16. Six died from natural 
causes and 10 were killed by hunters in areas adjacent to the park. 

Antelope:- The largest count secured during the year was 641 as 
compared with 497 last year and 417 during the year next preceding. 
Herd conditions are excellent and the annual increase this year should 
bring the herd total to approximately 700. The looses during the year 
were in excess of normal; they are listed as follows: killed by coyotes 
5, accidentally killed 1, and a loss of 12 from natural causes, to' 
18. hor the first time in years Wyoming has authorized an open season 
on back antelope ^.nd 100 licenses have been 3 old. Most of the antelope 
killing will be distant from the park and no Yellowstone antelope will 
be affected. 

ioose:- The largest count of the par;: winter season was submitted 
in November 1926. The total of this count was 73, which does not com- 
pare favorably with the maximum count of 103 submitted in 1926, and 170 
in 1925. They are more generally distributed, however, over the entire 
park area than ever before and although there .has been an apparent 
crease during the past two years there is believed to have been a moder- 
ate increase in the totd number of noose in I rk. Herd 1< 
occurred during th y r as follows: One from natural causes and oi 
from accidental causes within the rk; 25 were lawfully killed by huj 
ters in the State of Wyoming, 11 were unlawfully killed by hunters in 
the State of Montana and 2 were unlawfully killed by hunters in the 
State of Idaho, at points adjacent to the [ c , botal 40. There is an 

v ■ 

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estimated total of 600 in the park at this time. Moose conditions in 
rk are excellent. Wyoming game officials have authorized moose 
tc he killed in the State this year. We regret to report that the 

be will again permit the killing of moose in the Upper Yellowstone 
country outside the park. 

Leer ;- The largest count secured during the year was 683, as 
compared with 798 last year and 602 during the year preceding. Losses 
have been reported as follows: Lawful kills by hunters in areas adja- 
cent to the park 105, unlawful kills by hunters 5, losses from acciden- 
tal causes 7, killed by coyotes 16, winter kills and losses from natural 
causes 28, total 171. Deer conditions are excellent and there is an 
estimated total of 1,875 mule deer in the park and at nearby points 
along the Yellowstone and Gallatin Rivers. . ^ 


" s 9. ■ 


*m . 

Elk :- feather ana forage conditions during the past year have been 
generally favorable and winter season losses have not been very greatly 
in excess of normal. All reports indicate a large calf crop this year. 
Special counts of the Yellowstone elk herds were made late in February 
by the Chief Park Ranger and his assistants. Members of the Forest Ser- 
vice and the State Fish and Game Department of Montana also assisted 
with the counts. The actual counts as submitted are noted as follows: 
Total counts within the park 9,807, counts on area3 north of park boun- 
dary along the Yellowstone River 3,256, grand total of actual counts 
13,043. Ten per cent was added to the total of the actual counts as a 
reasonable allowance for all that escaped observation, the amount of this 
addition being 1,304. The estimated total of the Gallatin herd, based 
•on careful observations and partial counts at frequent intervals thro - 
out the winter, is 3,000. The grand total of the actual counts and es- 
timates at the close of February 1927 was 17,347. This count does not 
include the Jackson Hole herd. Herd losses during the year are not 
as follows: Killed by hunters in hunting areas adjoining the park 1,099, 
losses resulting from accident 5, killed by coyotes 5, winter kills i: - 
eluding losses caused by tick infestation 548, shipments to game pr - 
served, public parks and zoos 107, total 1,764. Most of these losses 
occurred prior to the counts submitted herein. The latest count of the 

B n :ole elk as secured by representatives of the Porest Servj 
Biological Survey ^nd State of Wyoming in Fcbraary and March 1927 wa3 

19,238. ey also report that approximately 900 were legally hilled by 

titers in this r fion dari. hunting season terminating on 
LI , 1926. 



I -i : 


Forage conditions in the park have "been generally good throughout 
the yc^r except in the Mammoth-Gardiner, Slough Creek and Buffalo Rat. ■ 
districts during January and February. . isual snow depths, wind orist 
on all exposed ridges, together with high winds and low temperatures made 
artificial feeding necessary at these points at intervals during this 
period. Approximately 300 tons of hay were fed. There is a balance 
of approximately 500 tons of old hay available for wild animal feeding 
next year which, togothcr with the new hay crop of about 1,026 tons, 

:es a tot.,1 of 1,526 tons on hand for use during the approaching win- 
ter season, but it is believed that the range has adequate forage for all 
* . requirements of the- elk. H^rd and forage conditions arc unusually 
good at this time. 

Bears , Black and Brown ;- Recent counts of the b^ars of this spe- 
cies are noted as" fellows: Old Faithful District 20, along Old Faithful 
to Thumb highway 8, Thumb Station 7, Thumb to ' tighway 10, Lake 
District 50, Canyon District 65, Tower Falls District 22, Mammoth Dis- 
trict 12, total 174. This total includes 41 cubs. The total numb 
of black and brown bears in the park is believed to be about 275. 

Bears , Griz zly;- Recent counts of bears of this species 
noted as follows": - Canyon District 53, Lake District 11, Old Faithful 
District 10, total 74. This total includes 22 cubs. No recent counts 
have been had on the bears of. this species known to frequent the more 
remote districts of the park. The estimated total for the entire park 
area is 100, The counts on the bears of both species shows a marked 
increase over last year. They are the principal wild animal attraction 
for park visitors. 

Beaver :- There has been no apparent decrease in beaver activities 
throughout the park; some old workings have been abandoned but many new 
workings have been observed. The range of their activities is increasing 
frcm year to year and there appears tc be an increase in their numbers. 

\ I ' 
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r5g&~; ^Jfc ) 

Other Small Ani mal3;- The folio, :uned fur bear . 
have been seer, in abundance by rangers on winter season putre \ rten, 

• , weasel, ar.d skunk; otter' and fox have also been frequently ob- 
served, ./oodchucks, porcupines, rs, etc. ar :rous iely 
distributed throughout the par . 

*, ■» 

\. .v-,. 



Migratory Birds :- Ducks and geese have been abundant on all the 
lakes and streams. Swans have appeared at intervals along the Yellow- 
stone and Firehole livers .jid sand hill cranes have been occasionally 
seen. Counts of water fowl will be .iade hereafter on a fixed date 
each month of the year. crts of these counts will be submitted to 
the Bureau of Biological Survey pursuant to a cooperative agreement. 

™ -*r -^ 

Trees and Insects -.- Dr. H. E. Burke of the Bureau of Entomology 
has been in charge of forest insect control work in the park this year. 
He has designated several small areas of infested trees at points on the 
loop road which will be cut and burned early this fall. A considerable 
number of Douglas fir trees have been killed by the Douglas fir beetle in 
the vicinities of Crescent and Garnet Hills and Hellroaring Mountain. 
It appears that the infestation has spread from the old budworm areas. 
There are indications, however, that the epidemic is waning as many of 
the broods in the infested trees have died before reaching maturity. 
A few lodgepole needletyer caterpillars can be found throughout the 
Madison Basin. Forest insect conditions in the park are materially im- 
proved but it will be necessary to spray the trees again next year and a 
large number of trees infested with the Douglas fir bark beetle and other 
beetles will have to be treated during the ; autumn and in the 
3 ring of 1928. It is hoped that after next year it will not be nec- 
essary to spray, thus cutting down thj cost of in I control in this park. 

GEYi : AE HOI] :_:£S 

Mammoth Hot Springs ; - ?u.rin Cctober, Uovember and December of last 
year there was" "a gl^dilal cessation of activities over the entire hot 
spring region at Mammoth. In October the igo at the higher levels 
disappeared, one by one, and by the end of November, Angel, White Ele- 

nt, Soda Spring, Bath Lake, the east end of Mound Terrace, Cleopatra 
and Minerva Terraces were entirely dry. This is the first time in the 
history of the park that Bath Lake and Soda Spring have been dr. . 
Lake has remained dry and the water which used to furnish Soda . 
now emerges through two openings to the east of the old well nas 
been torn down as unsightly. The first of December marked the time of 
least activity in this vicinity for, during that month, the last two 
mentioned terraces, Cleopatra and Minerva, again commenced to f] 

. , tt was not until January that New • ised ei to 

operate and it has not a] my signs of renewed activity since* 

itely after the tourist season of 1926 a larg , orous spring broke 
through the travertine above Jupiter and this ha ^3ted 

rvening months. Other small orifices liave c- this same 
bench level but c lives have been short and their presence has not 

cted the large, a1 low o: r in t ted 


about sixty paces northwest of Canary Spring. Both this and the main 
spring at the top of Jupiter Terrace were affected slightly "by the pr - 
vailing dryness in late November and December but these two and the 
easternmost spring at Hymen Terrace were, at the end of November, the 
only active ones in the whole vicinity. As early as the last of 
Docomber and January there was an increase in the general activity of 
the region but this did not become particularly marked until March. 
On the first of April it was possible ^o mr]:e observations on foot 
but up to that time all trips ov.jr the terraces had to be made on skis. 
Very careful examinations were made each month all winter for the long- 
eared bats which have been reputed to remain all winter in the v.e.rm 
Devil's Kitchen and none were seen until early in June. In the early 
spring many birds and mice were found smothered by carbon dioxide in 
the warm caves and hollows in the vicinity of Stygian and Stalactite 
. es and the .Vhite Elephant, Elk, deer, jack rabbits and snowshoe 
rabcits were encountered on the terraces all winter and very early in 
t:ie spring birds were seen feeding in the warm areas. In June activ- 
ity was resumed at a point on Old Angel Terrace which had been dead 
fcr a number of years and this has gradually spread until now it is 
quite extensive and beautifully colored by living algae. During the 
1927 tourist season the terrace trail has been thoroughly policed and 
kept in excellent condition by the formation guards. New signs ex- 
plaining the various features have been painted and placed by the 
Naturalists' Division. The Geophysical Laboratory of the Carnegie 
Institution of Washington, D. C. has been studying deposition of traver- 
tine by the various waters. The hot springs activities on the uj 
levels of the terraces have been somewhat below normal during the year 
but this deficiency has been more than compensated by the showings made 
by Jupiter, Mound and Hymen Terraces. The guide parties over the for- 
mations at ISammoth have been more popular than ever this year as indi- 
cated by the increased attendance over previous years. 



. :, -.. ij 


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J*' ' 

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rris Geys er Basin ;- There were no ch of considerable mag- 
ni trade Ls basin during the year but there were enc i trelopmi 
to sustain its reputation as the most shifting and v 11 the 

3ns of the park. Constant Geyser has been v .lar 
: ts activities; • eruptions were observed dur 
winter season but it displayed considerable activity during the fir 
week of July when it played at 3 minute intervals foi ral days. 


Its eruptions have since been irregular. Whirligig is the most active 
geyaer in the basin; there has been very little variation from its 
regular 20 minute intervals although the duration of its eruptions are 
noticeably shorter in winter than in summer. There was only one ob- 
served eruption of Mud Geyser during the year as compared with frequent 
and powerful eruptions during the year preceding. Valentine plays at 
irregular intervals every few days. Minute Man displayed unusual vigor 
in September, v/as irregular during October and November and dormant 
during December except for vigorous boiling at the vent. Its activities 
during the summer have been somewhat irregular . Onyx Spring and two 
unnamed geysers near Constant have displayed unusual activity throughout 
the year. Ebony Spring has also played with exceptional frequency. 
Coral and Vixen are very active. Their eruptions, though small, are 
frequent and show much vigor. There has been no marked change in the 
activities of 1-ew Crater or of th«. heat and pressure of the steam vent 
Black Growler. 

Upper Ge yser Basin :- Giantess erupted on the following dates 
during the year: September 14th, December 29th and on July 30th and 
31st. All eruptions were characterized by great power and vigor, par- 
ticularly the activities on the last named dates when it was constantly 
in action for a period of more than 24 hours. Giant erupted on 
October 20th but was inactive during November, December and January. 
Its next observed eruption was on February 4th which v/as followed by a 
period of quiesence until July 9th. Since this date it has erupted 
on July 29th, August 3rd, 5th and 20^ . No changes have been observed 
in its power and volume. Grand ha:: in action at intervals ranging 
from 8 to 15 hours. Its winter season activities are more irregular 
in point of time, pewer and volume. It normally plays to a maximum 

;ht of 200 feet. Old Faithful played at intervals ranging from 63 
to 63 minutes during Septc-foer, October, November and December. Low 
; round water shortened ^orations of play during January, February end 
T';..rch. The average ir' fc.rc -s 68 minutes as compared with 
63 minutes in July. The only observed eruption of Beehive during the 
fall, winter and spring seasons occurred on S iV 14th. 
been reported in e.ction only twice during the tourist season. These 
eruptions occurred on August 6th and 20th. On both occasions it 

yed to the . roximate height of 200 feet and the interval oi 
on August 6th bout 6 minutes. Castle played with great po. 
and unusual frequency in September and October. This activity I 


followed by its longest period of weak action in recent years. During 
'.larch, however, it was the most active geyser in the basin and two po. 
ful eruptions occurred within a period of 14 days. Its summer season 
activities have been normal. The Lion group showed much vigor at in- 
tervals during the winter, particularly during October and January. 
There was very little activity during February and March but their summer 
season activities have been normal. Daisy, Riverside, Sawmill, Oblong, 
Grotto and Lone Star have shown very little variation for their normal 
activities. There has been no apparent change at Black Sand or Biscuit 
Basin during the year, except that Handkerchief Pool has been inactive 
since early in the season. The most inactive period of the year at 
the Geyser Basins was during the months of February and March, but it 
in no way equaled the exceptional irregularity of geyser action during 
February and March of tl.e ^receding winter. No marked changes have 
been observed in the thermal activities at Thumb of Yellowstone Lake. 

Lower Geyser Basin :- There is very little change in Mammoth Paint 
Pots from one season to another except that they are more attractive in 
winter than in summer on account of more uniform surface moisture which 
keeps the mud from drying and becoming hard. The only observed erup- 
tion of Fountain Geyser since midsummer 1925 occurred on March 20th this 
year. It lacked much of the power and vigor of the displays of pre- 
vious years. All observed eruptions of Great Fountain have been normal 
in point of time, power and volume. It is the second largest fountain 
geyser in the park and is in many respects the most attractive. It 
erupts at comparatively regular intervals of about 10§ hours. Cleps^ 
and Black Warrior have displayed their usual power and vigor in all ob- 
served eruptions during the year. White Dome is comparatively feeble 
and inactive. There have been no narked changes in the formation or 
thermal activities at Midway Basin (Excelsior Geyser). It has been 
observed with interest, however, that the colors of Prismatic Lake are 
affected by the seasonal changes of temperatures. The brilliant red of 
the rim in summer is replaced by browns and greens during the winter 


A total of 57,438 people visited the Information Office at park 
headquarters during the season. Co; this total with 32,894 during 
the season of 1926, and 35,568 during the season of 1925. A total of 
101,330 free Government publications wore distributed ut the Information 
Office and ranger stations during the year and 5,906 Government publica- 
tions, including 1,486 : :ios were sold. Compare this total sales 
with 6,636 Government publications, including 1,058 portfolios disposed 
of last yi . In addition 858 books of other publishers were sold. 

Lecture Service :- This service at Mammoth Hot Springs consisted of 
three lectures each evening before audiences totalii. roximat 
47,615. Lectures were similarly conducted at Old Faithful, Lake, Canyon 
and Tower Falls and were attended by approximately 126, 567 p^ c - Old 

Lthful, 18,855 at Lake, 20,585 at Canyon and 2,047 a1 
compared with 58,532 .moth Hot Springs, 54,652 at Old Faithful, 
19,567 at Lc-kc, 14,168 at Canyon and 783 at Tower Falls last 


Gu i de ervi co:- Two regular guide parties were conducted twice 
daily over the formations at Mammoth Hot Springs f.nd Old Faithful. 
Special guide service has also been furnished at these points upon 

st. are uide service was also conducted on regular schedules 
at Mammoth Hot Springs, Old Faithful, Yellowstone Lake and Palls. 
The season tot^l of all guide parties during the season of 1927 is 
noted as follows: Mammoth Hot Springs 13,623, Old Faithful 32,906, 
Yellowstone Lake 5,295, and Tower Falls 1,063, total 52,906, as com- 
pared with 11,495 at Mammoth Hot Springs, 1,484 at Lladison Junction, 
,920 at Old Faithful, 6,992 at Yellowstone Lake and 1,193 at Tower 
Is, total 54,085 last year. 


Electric System; - Th^ folic dng table shows the total production 
of the power plant and disposition of current as compared with similar 
data for the fiscal year 1926. 

The peak load for the year was 236 kilowatts as compared with 204 
kilowatts last year. 

1925-26 1926-27 

Total production in kilowatt hours 684,290.00 702,092.00 

Sold to park operators 95,318.00 92,892.00 

Consumed for street lighting 26,596.00 28,173.00 

Balance, consumed by Government buildings, 

for power and lighting, lost on lines, etc. 583,374.00 581,028.00 

Rebuilt l/2 mile power line with new cedar poles. ed two 
sets living quarters; rewired 5 sets living quarters, changing wirj 
from open work to molding; wired 2 comfort stations for lights in 
auto camps; wired and connected up 6 electric hot water heaters in 
livi urters at Mammoth. 

Telepho ne System:- Thirteen miles of Telephone line were reb 
bet r :ver and Snake Hiver - one wire strung on trees. 

Forty miles of telephone line were built between Station and Upper 
Yellowstone for fire protection - one wire strung on trees. The Yel- 
lowstone Park Hotel Company and the National Park Service placed one 
additional 4-pin cross ..ra from Canyon to Lake (16 miles) on the m 
cedar pole line built joi ! . Thi onal Park Service 

ng two wires or. I .. arm, making an additional metallic circuit 
from Canyon to Lake. The Hotel Company and National P rvice 
placed one additional 6-pin cross arm from Fountain ranger station to 
Old Faithful (11 miles) on the cedar pole line built by the National 

; Service in 1923. Total number of miles of c id, 

I . 


A new 150-line Kellogg magneto BV/itchboard was installed at 
Mammoth. The old 50-line switchboard was moved tc the Lake Ran, 

The American Telephone & Telegraph Company, using the Hotel 
Company and National Park Service pole lines, strung a two wiro 
#12^ copper metallic circuit from Mammoth to Old Faithful and West 
Yellowstone and another circuit from Mammoth to Lake via Canyon, 
and new magneto switchboards were placed at Mammoth, Old Faithful, 
Canyon and Lake. These new copper circuits are built through to 
Helena and give the park high class, exclusive service. The new 
system when completed will cost about $150,000. 


Under the direction of the Steward & Master of Transportation 
3,240 tons of material, equipment and supplies were moved from rail- 
road terminals to headquarters. From headquarters, 11 trucks were 
operated through the park, supplying road camps, construction camps, 
etc. The total mileage of the trucks was approximately 74,291. 
A maximum of 16 men were engaged in the warehouse and in the trans- 
portation work. A total of 79,138.86 ton-miles were hauled. 


Due to the nature of the activities proposed for the past season 
it was necessary to place much more equipment in condition than here- 
tofore. Twelve heavy duty trucks and two light ton trucks for 
freighting, five heavy duty dump trucks for surfacing, two Ford ton 
dump trucks for maintenance, nine heavy duty tank trucks for hauling 
oil, one heavy duty spray truck for the Bureau of Entomology, and 
13 light trucks for general service, such as camp tenders, telephone 
trouble shooting, survey crews, etc., were overhauled. Six passen- 
ger cars and six motorcycles were reconditioned for administrative 
uses. All small tools, tents, stoves and camp equipment were re- 
paired. The steam shovel and two air compres?crs v/ere overhauled and 
kept running as well as a gas and a steam hoist. 


On March 3, 1927, Robert R. Robinson was appointed Master Mechai 
vice 3. L. Stinnett, who resigned on September 30, 1926. 


PAii'i? iivG depart:.^: t 

The Master Painter and his assistants painted five "bridges, In- 
cluding the long bridge over the Gardiner River on the Tower Falls road. 
Buildings at headqtiarters were painted on the outside and much interior 
painting was done. Several ranger stations were stained and roofs 
tainted. Nine hundred signs were made, painted and lettered, 
loards and arrows for the Educational Division were painted. The 
schoolroom was kalsomined and varnished; also cloa'.: room and rest room 
adjoining. Painted grave markers and concrete posts at cemetery, 
placed ahout 90 pieces of glass in various storm sash in quarters, 
floors of several sets of quarters were sanded and varnished. Consid- 
erable painting, kalsorainir.g, varnishing, etc. was done at headquarters 
in the various quarters occupied by employees of the National Park Ser- 
vice. Also painted one truck ana one touring car. Repainted mile 
posts and danger signs from Gardiner to Madison Junction. Varnished 
and painted new addition to hospital. Made, painted and lettered 96 
large and small information signs for park use. 

W M \ i±3r ' 





Yelltwstone Park Camps Company ;- Mammoth - Employees' dining room 
enlarged one-third more than its original size. Remodeled inside of 
garage to make a large and suitable place for plumbing shop. Con- 
structed a porch on rear of house occupied by 3. H. Moorman. Con- 
structed a cement floor in laundry in front of .. shin ry. tailed 
new Worthing ton- return ste^m pump in "boiler house and ulso installed 
new 1,000 gallon hot water tank. Installed new kitchen equipment, 
such as modern steam coffee urns, new large roasting kettle, new large 
meet grinder. Constructed two n re hose houses. Constructed 
16 permanent cabins, single type, size 12 x 12, in public auto 
Constructed administration -nd caretaker's building, ize 24 x !>0. 
Installed water lines throughout housekeeping grounds. 

Old Faithful L odge 
100 x 160 foot. S1 rt 
ing3 , • • roximately 135 
, size 12 x 14 fo 
x 12 feet. Constructc 
Old Faithful Public Aut 
installed all new cafet 
Old Faithful Lodge boil 

- Completed new recreation ha , 
ed construction of new lobby and scrvir 

x 160 feet. Constructed . twin bed 
et. Constructed 25 permanent lodges, size 
d 2 permanent ledges, size 12 x 2C 
omobilo Camp constructed cai • ilding and 
eria equipment. Also installed rom 

or house to the Old Faithful cafeteria building 

' •-'. 


in the auto camp, approximately 1,000 feet lo: .. . Installed water pipo 
lines throughout the hcuseKeeping section in the public auto camp. 
*>ved 55 new canvas tents from main 2 edge to * jng d< 

Lake Lodge - Constructed 25 permanent lodges for twin ted cabins, 
size 12 x 14. Constructed 12 permanent lodges, size 12 x 12 feet, Con- 
structed 2 permanent lodges, size 12 x 20 feet. Started construction 
15 permanent lodges, size 12 x 14 feet. Constructed permanent cabin for 
wood house, size 12 x 14 feet. Constructed permanent cabin, size l; 
20 feet, for new toilet building. 

Lake Fishing Bridge Automobile Camp - Moved 30 good canvas tents 
to the housekeeping department. Installed water lines throughout house- 
keeping section. Converted Lake lunch co\mter and delicatessen into 
cafeteria and delicatessen. Installed new hot water plant in cafe- 
teria building. Commenced building administrati en and caretaker's 
building in housekeeping department, size 12 x 50 feet. 

Thumb - Completed cafeteria building and installed cafeteria oper- 
ations . 

Can;/ or. - Constructed 45 size 12 x 14 feet and 6 size 12 x 12 feet 
permanent lodges. Installed a new 7P hcrse-power steam engine and 50 
?:.',. generator in boiler house. Built new sewerage tank. In public 
automobile camp -.ommenced construction of new cafeteria building, front- 
age 72 feet, depth approximately 100 feet. 

Sylvan Pass Lodge - Considerable work was done on sewerage tank 
in accordance with Government recommendations. 

Camp Roosevelt - Installed 25 horse power gasoline engine and . 

'.'.. . onorator for electricity and electric light. 

Geor.;'- taker , .Merchan t;- Mammoth - Added two sleeping rooms to 
filling station. Put in two additional pumps for gasoline and two new 
storage tanks; also painted filling station and roof en main store. 
The same changes were made at Canyon filling station. 

Pry or & Trischman , Park Curio Shop :- Mammo th - New foundation undf r 
"'.rio shop. 

Henry P. Brothers , Baths:- Constructed bathhouse in automobile camp 
grounds at Old Faithful with 6 tubs, 12 showers and 2 toilets. New 
pipe lines - 3,600 feet 6 inch wood stave, ! ,000 feet 2 inch galvanized 
ircn, 2,000 feet l-l/2 inch galvanized iron. 

J. _. 163 , O fficial V)s - ;rapher t- Old • - New con- 
struction: leg trimmed, 2-story living qua- "(2,2' aqua:- *.) and 
shop (2,^32 square feet) and photo finishing plant, dimensions, ma 

r 60 x 76 feet, second floor 32 x 44 fe< . iipment i: 
2 projection printing machines for enlarging standard ! Llm, 2 
positive film printers for ! ,1 convertible 
film and lantern slides. 


Mammoth .vuto Camp - New construction: log trimmed ]-story sh 
and two bedrooms; dimensions 42 x 25 feet, floor space (business) 75C 
square feet, living quarters 300 square feet, total 1,050 square feot. 

Jc.'er rail s .h.uto Camp - New construction: log trimmed, 1-story 
shop (2,000 square feet") and living quarters (1,960 square feet); di- 
mensions 90 x 44 feet. Equipment installed: 1 12-foot marble soda 
fountain (frigidaire coded), and 2,000 watt L'ohler electric light 
plant augmenting former plant at Tower Falls. 

Other additions end improvements consisted cf photo finishing 
equipment - 1 automatic 8 x 10 enlarging machine, 2 5x7 enlarging 
machines, 4 phcto ferrotyping machines designed by Haynes, 4 50-gallon 
tanks, ?ako developing, hanging and drying equipment. jUso showcases, 
cash registers, i-acks for books a: d si ;ns. Several new brands of 
films were added to old line and the Bell & Howell line of motion pic- 
ture equipment and accesoories. S;..les of kodaks and cameras have more 
than doubled. 

£. A. Hami l ton , Merchant ; - Completed new filling station at Old 
flaithfu.1, Stringing electric li :res from Lake Shore to Hotel. 

ellows bon e Park Hote l Company : - H amm oth - Lew laundry and power 
plant constructed in rear of hotel. 

?ld Faithful - 150 room addition, including 95 bathrooms, additir^ 
to lobby; addition to dining room; addition to girls' dormitory; new 
tailor shop; completion of outside fire protection. 

Lake - New quarters for kitchen crew; completion of outside fire 

Canyon - New men's dormitory; installation of outside fire prot< ■- 
tion; drainage system around hotel completed; new boiler to be installed, 

Ye llowstone ?^a*k Transportation Compa ny:- Gardiner - Purchased new 
5-ton gasoline true!" _nd new 3- ton service truck; acetylene generator 
plant completed. 

at . . - .Entire renovation of drivers' bunk house. 

Old ! aithful - New bunk house and new drivers' wash house bull' ; 
service garage in auto c^mp completed. 

__^_cji - New transportation bunk house and drivers' wash house 

Lake - ^3e and drivers' wash house st Falls - G^s tank and ga3 pump installed. 


Yellowston e Park Boat O - Office and sleeping quarters for 
Ddant built t Thumb; Thumb do'ck rebuilt; floating doc: 
and sleeping quarters built at Fishing Bridge; 20 new steel row boats 
and one new motor bo~t . : .tsed; marine railroad and warehouse started, 
A large buildin_; for the storage of boats constructed just west of the 
Fish Hatchery in the autumn of 1926. 


Seventeen saddle horse permits were issued during the year and 
five permits to take motion pictures. 

A ten year franchise for the operation cf medical and hospital 
service in the park was executed on October 3, 1927. The term cf 
this franchise runs from January 1, 1927, to December 31, 1936. Dr. 
George A. Windsor of Livingston, Montana, is the holder of the new 
franchise. The Yellowstone Park Hotel, Camps and Transportation Com- 
panies have executed an agreement with Dr. Windsor covering medical 
service to their employees, which runs concurrently with the Government 

DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE - U. S_. COIZ: IS5 1 Oil el'd 'S CO; ■- j 

Hon. John '.'.'. Keldrum, Commissioner since 1894, presiding. Pro- 
ceed ...s were had in 26 cases during the ye . . There were 26 convic- 
tions and no acquittals. A total of j739 in fines, exclusive of 
costs, were imposed. There were 16 cases involving violations of 
traffic regulations, 3 cases involving violations of the Federal Pro- 
hibition Act, 1 case involving trespass and violation of park regula- 
tions governing the possession and use of fire arms in the park, 
cases cf obnoxious and disorderly conduct, and 1 ca3e of defacing the 
geyser formations. 


Receipts and cancellations show a substantial increase over pr* - 
vious years. ie demand for an extended service in the park is und- r 
consideration oy representatives of the Post Office and I r De- 
partments . 



* 27 


Ins pecti on Service ;- Inspector Charles L. Gable was In the park 
several weeks during the ye^r examining books of the public utilities 
and observing, their operations and those of the National Park Service. 
Inspector .-ilson A. Blossom and Felix E. Cri3tofane of the General Ac- 
counting Office, were in the park in Jipril, giving instruction in the 
installation of a new accounting system. They were accompanied by 
Noble i/ilt, Accountant for the National Park Service. 

Geological Survey :- The usual inspections of water gauging stations 
were made regularly during the summer and the installation of the self- 
recording gauge on the Gardiner River, near park headquarters, was com- 


Bureau of Fisheries :- Egg collecting at Yellowstone Lake and Fish 
Lake was begun about June 5th this year. The late season, disappc 
ance of snow and flood • at r conditions made the collection of spawn 
more difficult than usual. The total collection cf black spotted trout 
eggs from park waters was 13313000. The plants within the park from 
the spawn thus collected consisted of 3,^33,000 fingerlings and 1,280,000 
eyed eggs. Shipments of eggs or fry to points outside the park totaled 
5,993,000. District Supervisor C. F. Culler was in charge of the work. 


Gather Bureau :- Mr. E. H. Fletcher, the local observer, was in 
charge throughout the year, and made many routine and special reports 
to us on weather conditions. 

Bureau of '.ntonology :- Dr. H. E. Burke, of this bureau, was again 
on duty in the nark studying forest insects and directing insect con- 
trol work. 


Public Health Service :- .Ur. H. B. Hommon, Sanitary Engineer, visit- 
ed the park during the summer and gave advice on sanitation and .e- 
ment of camp grounds. The Public Health Service continued to keep an 
assistant surgeon in the park to aid in safeguarding health. Dr. R. R. 
Brady of Nebraska was appointed to this pociticn. 


In the hospital, leased to Dr. Geo. A. Windsor, of Livingston, 
.tana, the following cases were cared for: 87 accidents (56 minor, 
3] .ajor); 44 surgical mentions (26 minor, 18 major); 13 contagious; 
166 sick. A total of 4,785 were treated in the hotel and camp dis- 
pensaries. Resident Physician Brady attended to 464 office calls and 
house calls. 



In February 1927 the President's Outdoor Recreation Committee, coi - 
posed of five members of the Cabinet, appointed a commission to study 
conditions of the Jackson Hole elk herds. arles Sheldon of the Bo<, 
& Ciockett Club was chairman. Superintendent H. M. Albright represent- 
ed the National Park Service on the Commission. The Commissi' 
Washington, D. C. It was decided after studying a mass of facts regard- 
ing the Jackson Hole elk that the winter feed grounds should be extended, 
and it was recommended that Congress authorize the purchase of about 
11,000 acres of land, near the present elk refuge, at a cost of about 
v250,000. Recommendations regarding disposal of surplus elk and gen- 
eral administration of the herd were made. The Commission is being 
continued in existence. 


On January 30, 1927 Charles ".'. Cook died at his home in White 
Sulphur Springs, Montana. His wife passed away only a few months later, 
Mr. Cook was a member of the 1869 exploring party, known as the Fo Is cm- 
Cook expedition. This 'arty was the first to thoroughly explore the 
region that is now Yellowstone Park. Mr. Cook was the last of the 
early park explorers to die. There are still a few survivors of the 
Harden Survey who were in the park in 1871, 1872 and 1878. 
Jackson, photographer for the Hayden parties, visited the Yellowstone 
on August 17, 1927. On June 27, 1927 Major Moses Harris, first mil- 
itary superintendent of the park, and who was in charge from August 17, 
1886 to May 31, 1883, died at Rochester, N. Y. , in his 88th year. 
Early in 1927 E. C. Waters, who pioneered in the operation of boats 
Lake Yellowstone died in tnc Old Soldiers' Home at Fond du lac, Wiscon- 
sin. On October 12, 1926, Colonel John Pitcher, Superintendent of the 
park from May 8, 1901 to May 13, 1907 died at Edgewater, Maryland. lie 
was 72 years of age. X' s "^ 


Charles W. Cook 

On September 23, 1927, Brigadier General Lloyd , bt, last n. - 
• ry suj ' ndent of the park, who served from Septembi r • , L910 to 
October 16, 1916, died in Washington, D. r ., at th ;e of 71. In 1 
latter part cf 1926, Georg . , :io came so i. his 1 I 

at the ruxnds of .' i rce Indians in the park on August 24, 1077, c 
r Spok^. , . • n. year. 



The public-spirited friend in the .Cast, whose name cannot be di- 
,-ed, continued his financing of the roadside cleanup program which 
he undertook in 1924. The cost of work completed since the last an- 
nual report was .9,000. Details of the work is mentioned under an- 
other heading. ~.~.r. Iff. E. Corey, the well-known steel executive, who 
has fished in the Yellowstone region for years, has advanced ^15,000 to- 
ward a development of fish cultural facilities that will cost yo0,000. 
The 3ureau of Fisheries will match Mr. Corey's gift, and the new facil- 
ities, including a new hatchery at Lake Yellowstone, will be built in 
September 1927. Mr. D. E. Skinner, of Seattle, Washington, and his 
associates in a ranching enterprise, donated to the Park on October 
26, 1926, a 75-ton Holt caterpillar tractor in excellent condition. 
This fine machine has greatly aid^-.d road maintenance work this summer. 
The Yellowstone Park Transportation Company donated ^1,120.86 for the 
printing of the 1927 edition of the Manual for Railroad Visitors, and 
it also bought 20,000 copies of our Yellowstone yiide book - "Rules 
and Regulations" - for distribution among its guests. J. E. Haynes, 
Acting Director of the Yellowstone Museum, donated material and ser- 
vices necessary to print, bind and issue 125 copies of the 1927 Man- 
ual for Ranger Naturalists. Mr, Haynes also donated much time to 
editing this book. All Mr. Haynes' work for the park is gratuitous. 
Space prevents mention of many gift3 of books to the library of the 
perk, and of relics, specimens, etc., to the museum. Mr. Marcus H. 
Doll, of V/u-shin^ton, D. C. provided funds for the framing of several 
fine original drawings of animals and birds donated by the Curtis 
Publishing Company. Mr. Mode Wine man, of Pasadena, California, noted 
camera artist, was in the park from early June to about the middle of 
September making new studies for the museum collection of park scenes 
vhich he started two years <~go by the donation of ?0 beautiful views 
enlarged for gallory display. 


No action was taken by Congress on legislation to extend the 
r>, nor has anything been done about eliminating the Bechler River 
basin from the park, except that on March 4, 1927, the sub-committee 
Of the Senate Public Lands Committee appointed to investigate this 
proposal, reported favorably on the elimination [Senate Report No. 
1714 - 69th Congress). On February 25, 1927, the President signed 
a Joint Resolution of Congress (S. S. Res. 120) accepting the Izaak 
ton League lands in the Jackson Hole and adding them to the Elk 



'iv- H -' 





As this report is completed, President Coolidge, Mrs. Coolidge 
and their son John have returned to Rapid City, South Dakota after five 
days in Yellowstone Park. They and their party of about 50 newspv.j.'.r- 
men, secret service agents, telephone, telegraph and railroad officials, 
arrived at Gardiner by special train at 1.20 P. LI., August 22nd. Hhe; 

..t Camp Roosevelt and Mammoth Hot Springs the 22nd, at Old Faithful 
the 23rd, at Lake Yellowstone the 24th and 25th, and at Grand Canjr on on 
the 26th. They left via the Cody gateway an the 27th, and departed 
from Cody by train at 1.00 P.!.:. The President fished in the Fireholc 
River, and at Yellow stone, Squaw and Grebe Lakes. Mrs. Coolidge and 
John visited the Teton fountains and enjoyed lodge and hotel entertain- 
ments at night. 

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ident Coolidge, rintendent Albr 
Sawyer observing the osprey in lowst